Submersible pumps in Dubai UAE
A submersible pump (or electric submersible pump (ESP)) is a device that has a hermetically sealed motor attached to the pump body. The pump is immersed in the liquid to be pumped. This is the main advantage of this machine because it does not create a hole during the pumping process. This factor is one of the problems that always arise for pumps since there is always a difference in height between the pump and the fluid surface. Unlike jet pumps, which rely on atmospheric pressure to create a vacuum, they apply pressure to the fluid surface. The force that makes this model of pump work is the pressure from the water surface that drives the hydraulic motor and does not use electric force. These pumps are used in heavy oil operations that use heated water as a source of energy.
Operating principles of submersible pumps
Electric submersible pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps that operate vertically. The liquids are accelerated by the impeller and converted to pressure by losing their kinetic energy in the diffuser. This is the main operating mechanism of radial and mixed flow pumps. HSP motors are hydraulic and can be closed cycle or open cycle. A closed-cycle means that it separates the liquid used to produce energy from the liquid produced. In an open cycle pump, the liquid used to generate energy is mixed with the liquid inside the machine.
The pump shaft is connected to the gas separator or shield by a mechanical coupling at the bottom of the pump. Fluids enter the pump through the inlet plate and are lifted by the pump steps. Other parts include radial bearings or bushings that are distributed along the shaft and support the pump shaft radially. The optional thrust bearing is part of the axial forces of the pump, but most of these forces are absorbed by the protective thrust bearing.
Another type of submersible pump is the screw-type, which has a steel screw that is the main operating factor of the pump. The use of steel screws makes the pump work in water that has a lot of sand and other mechanical impurities, without any problems.
Submersible pump applications
A submersible drainage sump pump has many uses. Single-stage pumps are used for drainage, sewage pumping, general industrial pumping, and slurry pumping. Pond filters in this type of pump are very well known and popular. Multistage submersible pumps are usually submerged in a borehole and are commonly used to extract residential, commercial, municipal, and industrial water (optional), water wells, and oil wells.
Other applications of submersible pumps include: sewage treatment plants, seawater transmission, firefighting (since the cable of this pump is flame resistant), drilling water wells and deep wells, offshore drilling rigs, artificial elevators, Noted dewatering of mines, and irrigation systems.
Pumps located in hazardous electrical locations, for combustible liquids or for water that may be contaminated with combustible liquids, must be designed so that they do not ignite liquids or vapors.
Use in oil wells
Submersible pumps are used in oil production to create a relatively efficient form of "artificial lift", capable of operating at a wide range of flow rates and depths. By lowering the bottom-hole flowing pressure, or increasing drawdown, compared to natural production, significantly more oil can be produced from the well. These pumps are usually powered by electricity, which is why they are called Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP). Some pumps are hydraulically powered and are known as Hydraulic Submersible Pumps (HSP).
ESP systems consist of surface components (located in production facilities, for example, an oil rig) and subsurface components (found in well holes). Surface components include motor controllers (often variable speed controllers), surface cables, and transformers. The subsurface components are connected to the end of a pipe string, while they are on the surface, and then plunged into the well hole with the pipe.
The required power is supplied from a high voltage alternating current source (3 to 5 kV) on the surface. Until recently, installing ESPs was very expensive because it required an electrical cable to run from the source to the motor. The cable had to be wrapped around articulated tubes and attached to each joint. The navel of the new coiled pipes allows both the plumbing and the power cable to be installed with a standard winding pipe unit. Cables for sensor and control data may also be included.
Subsurface components usually consist of a pump part and an engine part from which the motor hole exits the pump. The motor rotates the shaft, and this shaft rotates the pump impellers to raise the fluid to the surface through the production tubes. These components must be able to reliably withstand temperatures up to 300 ° F (149 ° C) and high pressures up to 5000 psi (34 MPa), from deep wells to depths of 12,000 ft (3.7 km) with high energy requirements up to 1000 hp. Steam (750 kW) to work. The pump itself is a multi-stage device that determines the requirements of each operation, and the number of stages. Each stage has a propeller and a diffuser. Each impeller is coupled to the rotating shaft and accelerates the fluid radially outwards from near the shaft. The fluid then enters a non-rotating diffuser that does not pair with the shaft and contains blades that direct the fluid toward the axis. The diameter of the pumps is from 90 mm (3.5 inches) to 254 mm (10 inches) and their length varies between 1 meter (3 feet) to 8.7 meters (29 feet). The motor used to drive the pump is usually a three-phase squirrel cage induction motor with a plate power ranging from 7.5 kW to 560 kW (60 Hz).
ESP assemblies may also include the following: Seals connected to the shaft between the motor and the pump. Screen for rejecting sand; And fluid separators at the pump inlet that separate gas, oil, and water. ESPs with a significant gas fraction have much lower efficiencies, more than about 10% by volume at the pump inlet, so separating the gas from the oil before the pump can be important. Some ESPs have a water/oil separator that allows water to be re-injected into the pit. Since some wells produce up to 90% water and it is costly to raise the fluid, re-injecting water before lifting it to the surface can reduce energy consumption and improve the economy due to the speed of rotation. High ESPs up to 4000 rpm (67 Hz). And at narrow distances, they are less tolerant of solids such as sand.
Submersible drainage sump pump cables are designed for use on wet ground or underwater, and their types are specialized pumps for environmental conditions.
A submersible drainage sump pump is a specialized product used for submersible pumps in deep wells or similarly harsh conditions. The cable required for this type of application must be durable and reliable, as the installation location and environment can be very restrictive as well as hostile. In this way, the submersible pump cable can be used in both fresh and salt water. It is also suitable for direct burial and well casting. The installation area of the submersible pump cable is physically limited. Cable manufacturers must consider these factors to achieve the highest possible degree of reliability. The size and shape of the submersible pump cable can vary depending on the use and preference and pumping tools of the installer. Pump cables are made in single-conductor and multi-conductor types, and their cross-section may be smooth or round. Some types include control wires as well as power conductors for the pump motor. Conductors often have a color code for identification, and a general cable cover may also have a color code.