Maybe you have also wondered what Sart is and what is its use for sailors? For this reason, in this article, we intend to examine the following matters regarding the search and rescue transponder, which is called SART for short. Stay with us in the article.
- General characteristics, location and function of SART
- Required number of SARTs in vessels
- Battery required
- SART test method
Introduction of Sart in UAE
A SART or search and rescue transponder in UAE is a very critical piece of equipment on a ship because it performs the function of a signal.
This is a vital device in an emergency as it helps locate the ship if it goes off course. SARTs are made of waterproof components that protect them from water damage.
SART is a type of radar and radar is an electromagnetic system that is used to detect and determine the position of the target. With radar, you can see inside the environment that is impenetrable to the eye, such as darkness, rain, fog, snow, dust, etc. But the most important advantage of radar is its ability to determine the distance or limits of the target. Radars are used in land, air, sea, space and meteorological purposes.
What is radar and what is its application in marine industries ?
Radar is an electromagnetic system that is used to detect and determine the position of the target. With radar, you can see inside the environment that is impenetrable to the eye, such as darkness, rain, fog, snow, dust, etc. But the most important advantage of radar is its ability to determine the distance or limits of the target. Radars are used in land, air, sea, space and meteorological purposes.
Radar waves are something that is all around us, although we cannot see it. However, the airport traffic control center uses radar to track the planes, whether they are on the runway or in flight. In some countries, the police use radar to identify cars with illegal speed. NASA uses radar to identify the position of the earth and other planets, it is also used to follow the path of satellites and spacecraft, and to help ships at sea and in combat maneuvers. Military centers also use it to identify the enemy or guide their weapons.
Meteorologists use it to identify storms, sea gusts and tornadoes. You even see a special type of radar in the entrance of stores that opens the door when people are standing in front of them. You can clearly see that radar is a very useful tool.
The use of radar is generally in line with the following three goals:
Detecting the presence or absence of an object at a certain distance - mostly what is detected is moving, like an airplane, but radar is also able to detect the presence of objects that are buried underground. In some cases, even the radar can determine the nature of what it finds, for example, the type of aircraft it detects.
Identifying the speed of that object - exactly the same purpose that the police use on highways to control the speed of cars.
Moving objects - space shuttles and satellites orbiting the earth use something like radar to identify virtual holes, prepare detailed maps of the earth, maps of the surface features of the moon and other planets.
How does search and rescue transponder work in the UAE ?
SARTs are basically battery powered, so they can run for a long time. SARTs are used on ships, lifeboats and search boats. SARTs are designed to stay afloat for long periods of time if the ship is submerged.
The bright color of SARTs enables them to be quickly identified, while the transmitter and receiver combination enables it to also transmit radio signals.
By reacting to a search signal sent from an X-band radar, typically 9 GHz, SARTs have been effective in saving several ships and boats. These signals are known as house signals.
The response is usually displayed on radar screens as a sequence of dots on an X-band radar that helps rescuers reach vessels in time.
As previously mentioned, a SART is basically an electronic device that automatically reacts to a release or interrogation by a radar. This increases the visibility of the side that needs assistance on the PPI radar screen. They operate in the 9 GHz band and transmit a signal only when turned on and when interrogated by radar.
General characteristics, location and function of SART
In this section, we will introduce the general features and other specifications of the SART radar device:
- The SART is made of fiber-reinforced plastic that can withstand sunlight and extreme weather conditions.
- It is able to float without survival craft
- It has an international orange color
- The SART is mounted on a bracket that is mounted on a wall on a ship, on the bridge.
- It operates in the 9 GHz frequency band (9.2 to 9.5 GHz) and produces a series of clips on the radar interrogated by the (3 cm/X-band radar).
- They can be portable or permanently fixed in the survival craft
- The SART is manually activated and hence only responds when interrogated
- When the SART is activated in a high-risk situation, it responds to a radar interrogation by sending a signal that creates 12 bars on the radar and turns into concentric circles as the range between the two decreases.
- In PPI, the distance between bleeps will be 0.6 miles
- This signal is much easier to detect than the signal echo from a radar reflector
- The SART also has an audio or visual indication of its proper operation and will notify survivors if interrogated by radar.
- An audible beep is heard every 12 seconds when the radar is not in sight, and every 2 seconds when the radar is interrogating.
Required number of SARTs in vessels
Depending on the type and size of the vessel, each type of ship or boat needs a different number of this device. In this section, we state the required number for each float:
- For passenger ships – at least two
- Cargo ship 500 GT and above – minimum two
- Cargo ship 300 GT and above – at least one
- Each lifeboat requires at least one SART.
In this section, we talk about the number of batteries required, hours of charging in working mode and in suspended mode, and about its replacement:
- In standby mode, for 96 hours
- In working conditions, for 8 hours
- The battery should be replaced every 2 to 5 years
- Applicable at temperatures between -20 and 55 degrees
SART test method
To find out whether the purchased device works or not, you can perform the following two tests to ensure the health of the device:
- self test (general)
- Switch the SART to test mode
- Hold the SART in view of the radar antenna
- Check that the visual indicator light works
- Check that the audio horn is working
- View the radar screen and see if there are concentric circles on the PPI
- Check the battery expiration date
- self test (regular)
- Remove the SART from the bracket
- Insert the probe into the SART with an interval of 2 seconds. The lamp will flash and the beeper will sound
- See concentric circles on X-band radar
In case of incorrect activation, immediately turn off the SART. Send a DSC safety alert on VHF channel 70. Send a safety broadcast by RT on VHF channel 16 to all stations indicating your ID and location and that you wish to cancel your false alert that was sent in error.
AIS-SART in Dubai
AIS-SART is an independent radio device used to locate a rescue vessel or distressed vessel by sending updated position reports using the standard Class A position report of the Automatic Identification System. AIS-SART position and time synchronization is derived from an internal GNSS receiver (eg GPS). The Global Maritime Crisis Safety System (GMDSS) installation consists of one or more search and rescue positioning devices. These devices may be AIS-SART (search and rescue transmitter) or radarSART (search and rescue transmitter).
SARTs find themselves useful in rescue operations involving aircraft or ships stranded by air and sea accidents. They are designed to survive the harshest conditions and remain active in elevated positions such as on a pole so they can cover a diverse range. As for altitudes, a SART transmitter on an aircraft can have a range of 30 to 40 miles. It helps to accurately survey a huge range and large area.
Looking at the facts, one can recognize that SARTs are marvels of human engineering, making them essential equipment on ships that venture out into the deep oceans.
Various Sart brands on the Dubai Marine website
Various brands of search and rescue transponder offshore devices are available in the market, including the following:
- Boat sart
- Chiyang sart