Diesel engines are used in cargo trucks, tractors, locomotives and ships. Few passenger cars also work with diesel engine. The inventor of the diesel engine is Rudolph Diesel, who built the first diesel engine in 1893 and it is also registered in his name. Boat owners and people who deal with Yamaha engine parts should know the main parts of gasoline engines and be familiar with their operation so that they know what to do in an emergency.
Therefore, every driver should know the main parts of the diesel engine at least in general, so that if a problem occurs, he can guess and recognize the probability of the problem and its origin. Because in case of acute problems, maybe the whole engine needs to be replaced. In the following, we will explain the different parts of diesel engines and their components.
How a diesel engine works and compare it with a gasoline engine
To understand how diesel engines work and perform, it is useful to compare and know the difference between diesel and gasoline engines. The main differences between a gasoline engine and a diesel engine are:
A gasoline engine takes a mixture of gas and air, compresses it and ignites the resulting mixture with a spark. But a diesel engine takes air, compresses it, and then injects fuel into the compressed air. Diesel engines do not have spark plugs and the heat of the compressed air ignites the fuel by itself.
The compression ratio in gasoline engines is 8:1 to 12:1, while this ratio in diesel engines is 14:1 and up to 25:1. We know that *higher compression ratio of diesel engine = better efficiency*.
If a carburetor is used in gasoline engines, the air and fuel are mixed before the air enters the cylinder. In injection systems, fuel is injected just before suction and outside the cylinder. In this case, in a gasoline engine, all the fuel enters the cylinder during the intake stroke and then condenses. The compression of the fuel-air mixture somehow limits the compression ratio of the engine, which if the air is compressed too much, the fuel-air mixture will spontaneously ignite and cause knocking. In diesel engines, direct fuel injection is used, that is, diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder. Since the diesel engine only compresses air, the compression ratio can be higher. As mentioned above, the higher the compression ratio, the higher the production power.
Types of diesel engines
Types of diesel engines are divided into three main groups, small, medium and large, based on power. The most common types of diesel engines are small-sized engines that have an output power of less than 188 kW. Small engines are used in cars, light trucks, agricultural machinery, construction (power generators), etc., which are usually direct injection, four or six cylinders, etc.
Types of diesel engines
Medium-sized engines also have an output power of 188 to 750 kW, which are used in heavy trucks. These engines are direct injection, six-cylinder turbocharged, etc. For locomotives, marine applications, etc., large diesel engines with a power of more than 750 kW are used, which have direct injection systems, turbocharging, etc.
Yamaha engine spare parts
Yamaha engines consist of hundreds of parts and components, the main and different parts of a diesel engine can be named as follows:
• Engine block
• Oil filters
• Air filters
• Injector pump
• Engine control system
• Engine starter
• Often a turbocharger
• Fuel filters
In the following, we will give a brief explanation about each of the components of Yamaha engines.
- Engine fuel system
The engine fuel system includes:
• Fuel injection pump
• Lift pump
• All fuel pipes
• Fuel filter
and so on. It is also used to separate the water in low quality fuels from other components. In general, in the engine, the fuel reaches the cylinder hole through the following route, which are in order of number:
- Fuel tank
The fuel tank is for fuel storage and is made of metal sheet. Fuel tanks have a fuel indicator to check the fuel level.
- Water separator
A water separator is used to collect excess fuel, including soil and water.
- Feeding pump
The pump is used to feed fuel.
- Injection pump
An injection pump is used to provide the required pressure to inject fuel into the combustion chamber.
- Injector nozzle
The injector nozzle divides the fuel into small particles and injects the fuel into the combustion chamber.
- Engine lubrication system
The engine lubrication system is used to reduce the friction in the engine. This oil is under pressure and prevents wear of moving parts. So, the different purposes of lubrication in diesel engine components are:
• Reduce wear And prevent it
• Reduces friction.
• Reduces heat and engine heat.
• Separation of piston rings and cylinders
• Remove excess material from the engine
The lubrication system in these engines has an oil pump and oil filters to keep the oil clean from pollutants.
In this system, diesel engine parts are lubricated under pressure. The oil is stored in the oil tank and by an oil pump, the oil passes through the strainer and the main bearings are lubricated. Then some oil is sprayed on the cylinder wall and the remaining oil goes to the crankshaft through a hole.
- Cooling system in diesel engine components
The cooling system in diesel engine components controls the engine coolant. In most cases, this liquid is a mixture of distilled water and glycol with other additives to help prevent component corrosion. There are many purposes for cooling the engine through the cooling system, including:
• Maintaining the optimal temperature for the maximum performance of the components in optimal conditions
Preventing excessive heat and protecting the engine (such as cylinders, cylinder heads, pistons, etc.)
• To maintain the viscosity and properties of oil for lubrication
Types of cooling systems include two types of cooling as follows:
• Air cooling
• Water cooling
In terms of water cooling methods, there are the following methods:
- Direct or non-direct method
- Thermosiphon method
- Forced circulation method
As mentioned, the cooling system is also used to cool the oil. Because higher temperatures reduce oil viscosity and cause a drop in oil quality and form a harmful oil layer between moving parts. In order to solve this problem, we use engine oil cooler.
- Suction system in diesel engines
In the intake system in diesel engines, air flows through the air filter into the cylinder. These routes are respectively:
• air filter
These filters have pores that are micron. The air filter prevents dust and other substances from entering the cylinder bore.
• Turbo charger
In general, the intake air is compressed by the air filter before entering the cylinder bore, which leads to higher efficiency. This is done by the turbocharger.
• Inlet manifold
The pipe that transports the air from the turbocharger to the intake port is the intake manifold.
• Inlet valve
• Inlet valve
The inlet valve allows air into the cylinder bore and the opening and closing of the valve is controlled by a camshaft.
• Cylinder hole
In the next section, we will examine the exhaust system of diesel engines.
- Exhaust system of diesel engines
The exhaust system is used in diesel engines to remove excess materials from combustion. The exhaust gases from the smoke or exhaust system flow through the following path in the engine, which are as follows:
• Cylinder hole
• Exhaust valve
• Exhaust valve
• Exhaust manifold
In order to reduce the sound of the engine, a muffler is used. In fact, due to the fact that exhaust gases have a higher pressure than the atmosphere, if these gases are released directly, a loud and unpleasant sound will be heard, like the sound of gunshots. Mufflers are used in these engines to cool the exhaust gases.
What do the different colors you see from your exhaust mean?
Regarding the different colors that you see from your exhaust, you can find out that the parts are defective, and these colors are:
- Black smoke
Black smoke indicates that the fuel injector pump is faulty. It means that the engine does not receive the right mixture of fuel and air for its proper operation.
- Blue smoke
If the engine oil burns, you will see blue smoke. This problem is not related to fuel and is a technical problem and should be solved as soon as possible and properly.
- White smoke
This problem occurs if the coolant is leaking from the cooling system. If the problem is not solved, it will cause the engine to heat up and cause further problems.
Turbo charger engines
Most diesel engines are equipped with a turbo. Turbo chargers are a very important part of the engine. In fact, turbocharger engines compress the combustion air so that the engine has a stronger performance.
Turbo chargers have two fans that are fixed on one axis. These fans are driven by exhaust air.
- Electrical system in diesel engines
The electrical system in diesel engines consists of the following parts, which are:
• Engine starter
The starter is for turning the flywheel, the power source of which is the battery. The pinion also engages with the teeth of the flywheel and turns the crankshaft. The same rotation of the crankshaft leads to the movement of the pistons in the cylinders. Air and fuel are sucked into the combustion chamber by the piston and start the engine. The main task of the alternator in the electrical system of diesel engines is to charge the batteries. In terms of batteries, two batteries are generally used, each with a capacity of 12 volts.
- Cylinder head gasket
A cylinder head gasket is located between the engine block and the cylinder head of diesel engines. This part or component in diesel engines prevents fluid from leaking into the cylinder head. Because if the cylinder heads get wet, the combustion process will not be done correctly due to the lack of fuel and air for starting. Also, this part is susceptible to warping due to the cooling system on the one hand and the heat caused by combustion on the other hand.
- Fuel injector in diesel engines
Injectors are one of the most important parts of diesel engines. Diesel engines require a fuel-air mixture and a large amount of heat to start. These parts release diesel gas into the combustion chamber where it mixes with air and the resulting combustion of fuel and air ignites the vehicle.
- Camshaft and crankshaft in diesel engine components
The camshafts in diesel engines are located near the top of the engine and allow fuel and air to enter and release exhaust fumes. In fact, the camshafts open and close the valves and enable combustion.
The crankshaft is one of the most complex parts that acts as a rotary motion. In fact, the crankshaft is a part that is used to convert the up and down movement of the piston into a rotational movement. The crank stays closed until the mixture of fuel and air required for combustion. This continues until the sensors send the time to open it to start the car.
- Flywheel in diesel engine
One of the most interesting parts of a diesel engine is the flywheel. This piece is located at the end of the crankshaft and performs the following tasks:
• Minimizing noise when cranking
• Minimizing vibrations and vibrations
Flywheels that have serrated edges also help to rotate when needed.
- Piston and connecting rod
The piston has a function to adjust the volume inside the cylinder. It is also clear why the cylinder volume needs to be adjusted. In order for the working process of the 4-stroke engine to be done completely. In this case, when the piston moves down, the volume of the cylinder increases, and when the piston moves up, the volume of the cylinder decreases. In general, there are three main parts on the piston, which are:
• Piston compression ring
These rings have a resilient function to prevent air leakage during compaction.
• Piston oil ring
The piston oil ring is located under the compression ring and prevents engine oil from entering the combustion chamber.
• Piston pin gasket
Piston pin gudgeon is a pin that is inside the piston to connect the piston to the connecting rod. This pin is a tube and when connected to its end it acts like a hinge.
• Oil pan or oil pan
Oil pan or oil pan is for engine oil. It is true that the oil pan may be used as a container for engine oil, but this component cannot be made carelessly either. Generally, these parts are made of thin metal sheets, but in some cars, they are made with thick metal materials.
• Timing belt or timing chain
The timing belt or timing chain is placed in the valve mechanism system. The timing belt or timing chain is for connecting the crankshaft and turning the camshaft at a certain angle, which is located at the front of the engine. So the timing belt connects the crankshaft to the camshaft.
Diesel engine components have a great impact on diesel engine performance. But what is Mercury diesel engine? Engines that have the ability to ignite without the need for an electric spark are called mercury diesel engines. The diesel engine uses the method of raising the temperature for combustion. Also, the diesel engine is the electric source of input to the diesel generator.
To raise the temperature, different parts are needed, each of these diesel engine parts has a specific task. In this way, they make the temperature of the combustion chamber very high, and after the temperature is high enough, at this time, they inject the combustible material into the air.
Familiarity with diesel engine components
Diesel engine parts and components and their duties include the following:
• Injector pump
It is responsible for adjusting the amount of fuel and the pressure required for fuel distribution.
Its use causes the fuel to be powdered and helps to better combine fuel with air.
• Fuel filter
It filters fuel and cleans fuel and prevents damage to diesel engine components.
• Fuel pipes
These pipes must be resistant to fuel pressure and heat so that they can properly transfer fuel from the tank to the engine.
• Turbo charging
This device increases the air entering the cylinder and increases the efficiency of the diesel engine.
Mercury spare parts in Dubai
Power supply systems include alternators, thermo starters, spark plugs, coils, wiring, and warning lights and are responsible for transmitting power to various engine components.
The diesel engine cooling system includes parts such as radiator, water hose and water pump, and they have the task of transferring the heat of the diesel engine to the outside.
Internal parts and skeleton of diesel engine including cylinder - cylinder head - bushings - piston - ring - gears - valves - oil pump or oil pump - radiator - propeller belt - thermostat - water pipes - air intake and exhaust systems - Auxiliary systems - steel chassis supporting the diesel engine.
Construction and spare parts of Mercury in diesel generator
There are always three basic pillars in an electricity generating device, which are:
The engine that converts the chemical energy of the fuel into the mechanical energy required by the generator and supplies the input energy required by the generator, which we will have a brief look at the building, systems and parts below.
A generator that receives mechanical energy and converts it into electrical energy, or in other words, the function of the generator is to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Electrical system and switchboard which is in charge of controlling, displaying and protecting the components of the device.
Kashani Industrial Complex has always emphasized the principle that the knowledge and awareness of most users of a device from components and systems This device will lead to the correct and optimal use of the device, so here we briefly describe the structure, systems and parts of the diesel engine.
Mercury combustion engines are composed of various systems and parts, each of these systems together with the corresponding parts has a specific task, so that by doing it, the engine starts working and can convert the chemical energy of combustion into mechanical energy. and thus produce the required mechanical force and torque. The parts of all diesel engines apart from their power and number of cylinders are as follows:
The skeleton and main column of the diesel engine and its accessories include: cylinder block - cylinder head - bushings - piston - rings - connecting rod - pin and spur pin - fixed and moving bearings - fixed bearing caps - crankshaft - flywheel - front tray gears - Valve caps- a set of gaskets and felt bowls.
The valve system includes: Dodo air valves - valve guide - pop valve seat - valve seat - valve seat - type valve - type valve set - style set.
The diesel lubrication system includes: cartel (or carter, which is the oil chamber) - oil pump or oil pump - oil strainer - bypass valve - oil filter - oil cooler (in some engines).
The diesel cooling system includes: radiator, radiator impeller, cooling fan, radiator impeller belt, water pump or water pump, thermostat, water hose pipes.
Diesel fueling system: fuel tank - fuel transfer pipes from the tank to the fuel pump - triangular or primary fuel pump - injector pump - high pressure fuel transfer pipes - injectors and...
Diesel smoke air intake and exhaust system including: air blower - air filter - air manifold - turbo charger - air coolers - smoke manifold - exhaust manifold - exhaust pipe.
Diesel power supply system includes: switch - warning lights and pointers - starter - dynamo - spark plug - glow plug or thermo starter.
Auxiliary or optional diesel systems include: engine water heater - air pump - hydraulic pump - refrigeration system parts (cooler) and so on.